Build Status Hackage lts nightly


Performance experiments using the rdtsc register on x86.


The code for these benchmark runs can be found in examples/examples.hs.

Benchmarks are based on:

number of runs:         1.00e3
accumulate to:          1.00e3
function:               foldl' (+) 0

1 cycle = 0.38 𝛈s (Based on my 2.6GHz machine, by definition).


one tick_: 16 cycles
next 10: [14,16,16,16,16,16,16,16,16,16]
average over 1m: 18.37 cycles
99.999% perc: 20,841
99.9% perc: 50.59
99th perc:  24.72
40th perc:  17.17
[min, 10th, 20th, .. 90th, max]:
 12.00 15.28 15.93 16.58 17.17 17.67 18.17 18.67 19.38 20.49 3.656e4


sum to 1000
first measure: 1020 cycles
second measure: 16 cycles


sum to 1000 n = 1000 prime run: 1.02e3
run                       first     2nd     3rd     4th     5th  40th %
ticks                    7.80e3  1.42e3  1.33e3  1.33e3  1.34e3    688 cycles
ticks (lambda)              868  1.36e3  1.32e3  1.32e3  1.32e3 1.32e3 cycles
ticks (poly)             1.17e3     740     720     690     726    690 cycles
ticksIO                  1.21e3     736     724     700     698    695 cycles
ticksIO (lambda)            800     728     690     720     694    691 cycles
ticksIO (poly)              910     710     740     692     722    695 cycles

ticks cost

Looking for hidden computation costs:

n =    1.00 outside:  7.88e4 inside:  2.58e4 gap:  5.30e4
n =    10.0 outside:  7.66e4 inside:  3.61e4 gap:  4.04e4
n =     100 outside:  1.59e5 inside:  1.19e5 gap:  4.02e4
n =  1.00e3 outside:  7.40e5 inside:  6.99e5 gap:  4.14e4


Multiple runs summing to a series of numbers.

sum to's [1,10,100,1000]
ns (ticks n fMono) as:  23.9 33.0 113 689
(replicateM n . tick fMono) <$> as:  15.7 17.1 92.0 673


sum to 1000
ticks list               5.93e4  2.23e4  5.20e4  1.75e4  1.75e4 1.45e4 cycles
ticks boxed              1.34e4  8.23e3  8.00e3  7.74e3  7.82e3 6.25e3 cycles
ticks storable           5.17e3  1.53e3  1.46e3  1.45e3  1.45e3 1.45e3 cycles
ticks unboxed            2.62e3  1.99e3  1.97e3  1.92e3  1.93e3 1.93e3 cycles


sum to 1000
tick                     2.96e3 cycles
tickWHNF                    388 cycles
ticks                    1.53e3  1.05e3  1.01e3  1.05e3  1.01e3 1.01e3 cycles
ticksWHNF                  80.0    24.0    30.0    24.0    26.0   25.3 cycles
tickIO                   1.05e3 cycles
tickWHNFIO                 24.0 cycles
ticksIO                  1.80e3  1.15e3  1.02e3  1.05e3  1.02e3 1.01e3 cycles
ticksWHNFIO                 128    46.0    24.0    24.0    24.0   20.5 cycles

R&D, To Do

metal speed

The average cycles per (+) operation can get down to 0.7, and there are about 4 cache registers per cycle, so 2.8 low level instructions per (+). Is this close to the metal speed?

unboxed versus boxed

ghc user guide


All about strictness


comparative results

ticks non-memo 1.28e5
ticks inline memo
ticks noinline no-memo
ticks inlinable non-memo
ticksIO non-memo 6.48e4

no-full-laziness in Perf.cycle

ticks non-memo 6.51e4
ticks inline memo
ticksIO non-memo 1.28e5


ticks memo 7.66e4
ticks inline memo
ticksIO nomemo 6.47e4


Can slow a computation down by 2x

lambda expressions

Can really slow things down


stack build --test --exec "$(stack path --local-install-root)/bin/perf-examples" --exec "$(stack path --local-bin)/pandoc -f markdown -i other/ examples/ other/ -t html -o index.html --filter pandoc-include --mathjax" --exec "$(stack path --local-bin)/pandoc -f markdown -i examples/ -t markdown -o --filter pandoc-include --mathjax" --file-watch

solo experiments:

stack exec "ghc" -- -O2 -rtsopts examples/summing.lhs
./examples/summing +RTS -s -RTS --runs 10000 --sumTo 1000 --chart --chartName other/sum1e3.svg --truncAt 4





cache cycle estimates

Cache Cycles
register 4 per cycle
L1 Cache access 3-4 cycles
L2 Cache access 11-12 cycles
L3 unified access 30 - 40
DRAM hit 195 cycles
L1 miss 40 cycles
L2 miss >600 cycles

A performance checklist

  1. compile with rtsopts flag
stack ghc -- --make examples/examples.hs -rtsopts -fforce-recomp
  1. check GC examples/examples +RTS -s

  2. enabling profiling

  1. create an on execution: time examples/examples +RTS -p

  2. space

examples/examples +RTS -p -hc
hp2ps -e8in -c examples/examples.hp
hp2ps -e8in -c examples/examples.hy # types
hp2ps -e8in -c examples/examples.hp # constructors
  1. check strictness pragmas

  2. space leaks

examples/examples +RTS -s - additional memory
examples/examples +RTS -xt -hy